Muhammad Ayub Khan

Occupation:

Political Leader

Designation: Second President of Pakistan
Institution / Org:

Pakistan Army

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Muhammad Ayub Khan (May 14, 1907 – April 19, 1974) was the first military ruler of Pakistan, serving as the second President of Pakistan (1958–1969). He became the Pakistan Army's first native Commander in Chief in 1951, and was the youngest full general and self-appointed Field Marshal in Pakistan's military history.



Ayub Khan was born on May 14, 1907, in Haripur British India, in the village of Rehana near the Haripur District of North-West Frontier Province. He was a Pashtun (Pathan) of the Tareen tribe.



For his basic education, he was enrolled in a school in Sarai Saleh, which was about four miles from his village and used to go to school on a mule's back. Later he was moved to a school in Haripur, where he started living with his grandmother. He enrolled at Aligarh Muslim University in 1922, but did not complete his studies there, as he was accepted into the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Khan’s son Gohar Ayub Khan was Pakistan’s Foreign Minister in the Nawaz Sharif government. Gohar’s son and Ayub’s grandson Omar Ayub Khan was Pakistan’s Minister of State for Finance. Gohar Ayub Khan and Omar Ayub Khan are politicians of Hazara.



As a result of his having control of the Pakistan Army, Ayub deposed Mirza on October 27 in a bloodless coup, sending Generals Wajid Burki, Azam, and Sheikh in the middle of the night to pack Mirza off to exile in England. This was actually welcomed in Pakistan, since the nation had experienced a very unstable political climate since independence.



In 1960, he held an indirect referendum of his term in power. Functioning as a kind of electoral college, close to 80,000 recently elected village councilmen were allowed to vote yes or no to the question: "Have you confidence in the President, Field Marshal Mohammed Ayub Khan?" Winning 95.6% of the vote, he used the confirmation as impetus to formalise his new system.



Ayub Khan with Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, wife of then U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1962



Ayub moved to have a constitution created, and this was completed in 1961. A fairly secular person by nature, Ayub Khan's constitution reflected his personal views of politicians and the use of religion in politics.



In 1962, he pushed through a new constitution that while it did give due respect to Islam, it did not declare Islam the state religion of the country. It also provided for election of the President by 80,000 (later raised to 120,000) Basic Democrats—men who could theoretically make their own choice but who were essentially under his control. He justified this as analogous to the Electoral College in the United States and cited Thomas Jefferson as his inspiration. The government "guided" the press and, while Ayub permitted a National Assembly, it had only limited powers.



As a result of his having control of the Pakistan Army, Ayub deposed Mirza on October 27 in a bloodless coup, sending Generals Wajid Burki, Azam, and Sheikh in the middle of the night to pack Mirza off to exile in England. This was actually welcomed in Pakistan, since the nation had experienced a very unstable political climate since independence.



In 1960, he held an indirect referendum of his term in power. Functioning as a kind of electoral college, close to 80,000 recently elected village councilmen were allowed to vote yes or no to the question: "Have you confidence in the President, Field Marshal Mohammed Ayub Khan?" Winning 95.6% of the vote, he used the confirmation as impetus to formalise his new system.



Ayub moved to have a constitution created, and this was completed in 1961. A fairly secular person by nature, Ayub Khan's constitution reflected his personal views of politicians and the use of religion in politics.



In 1962, he pushed through a new constitution that while it did give due respect to Islam, it did not declare Islam the state religion of the country. It also provided for election of the President by 80,000 (later raised to 120,000) Basic Democrats—men who could theoretically make their own choice but who were essentially under his control. He justified this as analogous to the Electoral College in the United States and cited Thomas Jefferson as his inspiration. The government "guided" the press and, while Ayub permitted a National Assembly, it had only limited powers.



Ayub began to lose both power and popularity. On one occasion, while visiting East Pakistan, there was a failed attempt to assassinate him, though this was not reported in the press of the day.



Ayub was persuaded by underlings to award himself the Nishan-e-Pakistan, Pakistan's highest civil award, on the grounds that to award it to other heads of state he should have it himself and also promoted himself to the rank of Field Marshal. He was to be Pakistan's second Field Marshal, if the first is regarded as Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck (1884–1981), supreme commander of military forces in India and Pakistan in the lead-up to independence in 1947.



Aggravating an already bad situation, with increasing economic disparity in the country under his rule, hoarding and manipulation by major sugar manufacturers resulted in the controlled price of 1 kg sugar to be increased by 1 rupee and the whole population took to the streets. As Ayub's popularity plummeted, he decided to give up rule.



In 1971 when war broke out, Ayub Khan was in West Pakistan and did not comment on the events of the war. He died in 1974.





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rehana ( attock,Pakistan) Saturday, August 16, 2014 12:18:18 PM (MDT - USA)
GREAT HERO OF PAKISTAN

murad ( Rangpur,Bangladesh) Friday, December 13, 2013 2:04:07 AM (MDT - USA)
The real hero of Pakistan in all age of the world

muzamilsaeed ( layyah,Pakistan) Saturday, November 23, 2013 3:46:15 AM (MDT - USA)
Ayub khan was man of principle..He was very brave leader . During his period pakistan was moving towards in the lists of stable country. our GDP increases to 14% from 7%.

Raja Akhtar Zaman ( Haripur,United States) Monday, July 15, 2013 3:03:10 AM (MDT - USA)
A great man with a lot of courage and morality. Came from very small city and become a general on his on footings. very Geatr leader and handsome president

Sakhawat shah ( Nowshera ,Hong Kong) Monday, January 28, 2013 6:16:30 AM (MDT - USA)
Wish we can have smae great person who lead our Sweet home land Pakistan

Attaullah Khan ( Nowshera,Pakistan) Thursday, December 20, 2012 5:34:59 AM (MDT - USA)
i can only cry to read the history of Ayub Khan and how he left the office .... nothing else to say

Nabeel ( Karachi,Pakistan) Saturday, November 24, 2012 7:08:24 AM (MDT - USA)
Field Marshal Ayub Khan can be known as the best leader of Pakistan He was very confident in his work. During his reign, Pakistan became as a developed state. I love his slogan 'I remember you sine you have gone.

TAHSEEN FARUQI ( OLNEY,United States) Friday, March 23, 2012 11:24:35 AM (MDT - USA)
PAKISTANDEVELOPED ONLY IN FIELD MARSHAL AYOUB'S REGIME.AFTER HIM RESULT IS FRONT OF YOU. آپ

asim khattak ( nowshera,Pakistan) Thursday, January 26, 2012 3:43:01 PM (MDT - USA)
pakistan developed only in his period.

ikram sadiq ( talagang,Pakistan) Wednesday, December 22, 2010 8:21:59 PM (MDT - USA)
the last warrior which we had that changes the way of pakistan and put it to devolpment

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